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EN 1090 Eğitimi

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EN 1090 Danışmanlığı

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ISO 3834 Danışmanlığı

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Kaynaklı İmalat Danışmanlığı

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Öğrencilik hayatımdan beri aldığım kurslar ve gittiğim okullardan derlediğim İngilizce notlarımı hem zaman zaman bana referans olması açısından, hem de herkesin kullanabilmesi için paylaşıyorum.

ingilizce

 

 

PAST

PRESENT

FUTURE

 

SIMPLE

Past Simple

I did (Yaptım)

I was an engineer

- Actions and situations in the past

- Started and finished in the past

I, we, you, they, he, she, it- did

I, he, she, it- was- noun/adj/adv

We, you, they- were- noun/adj/adv

Affirmative:

S+V2+...

S+did+V1+... (for emphasis)

S+was/were+noun/adj/adv+...

Negative:

S+didn't+V1+...

S+was/were not+noun/adj/adv+...

Question:

Did+S+V1+...

Was/were+S+noun/adj/adv+...

Wh-q+did+S+V1+...

Wh-q+was/were+S+noun/adj/adv+...

Words and expressions:

yesterday, ago, last day/week/year...

Present Simple

I do (Yaparım)

I am an engineer

- Actions or habits continuing for a long time

- General truths

- A period, we don’t know start and finish time

- Future meaning with tomorrow, next day, on Sunday… (a plan which can not change)

I, we, you, they- do

He, she, it- does

I- am- noun/adj/adv

He, She, It- is- noun/adj/adv

We, You, They- are- noun/adj/adv

Affirmative:

I/we/you/they+V1+...

He/she/it+V1s+...

S+do/does+V1+... (for emphasis)

S+am/is/are+noun/adj/adv+...

Negative:

I/we/you/they+don't+V1+...

He/she/it+doesn't+V1+...

S+am/is/are not+noun/adj/adv+...

Question:

Do+I/we/you/they+V1+...

Does+he/she/it+V1+...

am/is/are+S+noun/adj/adv+...

Wh-q+do/does+S+V1+...

Wh-q+am/is/are+S+...

Words and expressions:

always, usually, often, sometimes, ever, never, seldom, rarely, frequently, generally, every day/week/year…, on Sundays...

Future Simple

(Will) (inevitable)

I will do (Yapacağım)

I will an engineer

- To predict the future

- Decide to do something at the moment (Don’t use will to say what someone has decided to do)

- Offer/request/promise/threaten

   something

- Think or believe will happen in the

   future

I, we, you, they, he, she, it- will

(I, we- shall)

Affirmative:

S+will+V1+...

S+will+noun/adj/adv+...

Negative:

S+won't+V1+...

S+won't+noun/adj/adv+...

Question:

Will+S+V1+...

Will+S+noun/adj/adv+...

Wh-q+will+S+V1+...

Wh-q+will+S+noun/adj/adv+...

Offer/request/suggestion Question:

Shall/shan't+I/we+V1+...

Words and expressions:

probably, sure, expect, think, tonight, tomorrow, soon, again, this, in 2020, evening/morning, in two hours/a week…

 

(Going to) (evidence)

I am going to do (Yapmayı planlıyorum)

I am going to be an engineer

- A result of something in the present

- Intend to do in the future

- Already decided to do something

- Past meaning with was/were

   (planned in the past but didn’t occur)

- We can use one of these instead of

   going: about, likely, certain

I- am

He, She, It- is

We, You, They- are

Affirmative:

S+am/is/are+going to+V1+...

S+am/is/are+going to be

   +noun/adj/adv+...

Negative:

S+am/is/are+not+going to+V1+...

S+am/is/are+not+going to be

   +noun/adj/adv+...

Question:

Am/is/are+S+going to+V1+...

Am/is/are+S+going to be

   +noun/adj/adv+...

Wh-q+am/is/are+S+going to+V1+...

Wh-q+am/is/are+S+going to be

   +noun/adj/adv+...

Words and expressions:

just, tomorrow, next day/week, soon, again, this evening/morning, in two hours/a week, in 2020…

ACTIVE

S+was/were+V3+...

S+was/were+not+V3+...

Was/were+S+V3+…

 

 

 

S+am/is/are+V3+...

S+am/is/are+not+V3+...

Am/is/are+S+V3+...

S+will be+V3+...

S+won’t be+V3+...

Will+S+be+V3+...

S+am/is/are+going to be+V3+...

S+am/is/are+not+going to be+V3+...

Am/is/are+S+going to be+V3+...

PASSİVE

 

PAST

PRESENT

FUTURE

 

CONTİNUOUS

Past Continuous

I was doing (Yapıyordum)

- Refers to an action taking place in the past

- In progress at a past time

- Describe a situation/background scene

- To make indirect request or question

- Use “always” to mean “too often”

I, he, she, it- was

We, you, they- were

Affirmative:

S+was/were+Ving+...

Negative:

S+was/were not+Ving+...

Question:

Was/were+S+Ving+...

Wh-q+were/was+S+Ving+...

Words and expressions:

just, just as, while, as, last night/day/week...

Present Continuous

I'm doing (Yapıyorum)

- In progress at the moment

- In progress around the present

- In progress for a limited period around the present

- Changing or developing around the present

- Describe a plan or ask about someone’s plans

- A period, we know start and finish time

- Future meaning with tomorrow, next day...

- Use “always” to mean “too often”

I- am

He, She, It- is

We, You, They- are

Affirmative:

S+am/is/are+Ving+...

Negative:

S+am not/isn't/aren't+Ving+...

Question:

Am/is/are+S+Ving+...

Wh-q+am/is/are+S+Ving+...

Words and expressions:

now, nowadays, today, at the moment, still,

these days

Future Continuous

(Will) (inevitable)

I will be doing (Yapıyor olacağım)

- Will be in progress at a time in the future

- Already planned/decided

- Part of a regular routine

I, we, you, they, he, she, it- will

(I, we- shall)

Affirmative:

S+will be+Ving+...

Negative:

S+will not be+Ving+...

Question:

Polite way of asking plans

Will+S+be+Ving+...

Wh-q+will+S+be+Ving+...

Words and expressions:

tomorrow, next day/week, in 8 hours/a week...

 

 

(Going to) (evidence)

I am going to be doing

- Intend to do in the future

- Already decided to do something

- Past meaning with “was/were” but then it isn’t future

(intended in the past but didn’t do)

- We can use one of these instead of going: about, likely, certain

I- am

He, She, It- is

We, You, They- are

Affirmative:

S+am/is/are+going to be+Ving+...

Negative:

S+am/is/are+not+going to be+Ving+...

Question:

Am/is/are+S+going to be+Ving+...

Wh-q+am/is/are+S+going to be+Ving+...

Words and expressions:

Just, tomorrow, next day/week...

 

 

 

 

ACTİVE

S+was/were+being+V3+...

S+was/were not+being+V3+...

was/were+S+being+V3+...

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S+am/is/are+being+V3+...

S+am/is/are+not+being+V3+...

Am/is/are+S+being+V3+...

S+will be being+V3+...

S+won’t be being+V3+...

Will+S+be being+V3+...

S+am/is/are+going to be being+V3+...

S+am/is/are+not+going to be being

   +V3+...

Am/is/are+S+going to be being+V3+...

PASSİVE

 

PAST

PRESENT

FUTURE

 

PERFECT SİMPLE

Past Perfect Simple

I had done

- Refer back to en earlier past when talking about the past

- Talk about something had happened before the past time

- Past form of the present perfect

I, we, you, they, he, she, it- had

Affirmative:

S+had+V3+...

Negative:

S+had not+V3+...

Question:

Had+S+V3+...

Wh-q+S +had+V3+...

Words and expressions:

already, before, until, just, as soon as, by the time

Present Perfect Simple

I have done (Yeni yaptım)

- Always connect the past and present

- Started in the past and continues up to the present

- Have happened during a period of time that continues up to the present

- The result of a past action is connected to the present

- How long something has continued

- Finished action in the past at an indefinite time

I, we, you, they- have

He, she, it- has

Affirmative:

S+have/has+V3+...

Negative:

S+haven't/hasn't+V3+...

Question:

Have/has+S+V3+...

Wh-q+have/has+S+V3+...

Words and expressions:

ever(?), never(+), yet(?,-),for, since, today, this morning/evening/term/week, recently, lately, several times, many times, just, already, once/twice, all my life, in my life

so far/up to now/until now

 

 

Future Perfect Simple

I will have done (Yapmış olacağım)

- Something that will be completed before a certain time in the future

I, we, you, they, he, she, it- will have

(I, we- shall)

Affirmative:

S+will have+V3+...

Negative:

S+will not have+V3+...

Question:

Will+S+have+V3+...

Wh-q+will+S+have+V3+...

Words and expressions:

by the (time), when, until, in 8 hours/a week…

 

ACTİVE

S+had been+V3+...

S+had not been+V3+...

Had+S+been+V3+...

 

S+have/has been+V3+...

S+have/has not been+V3+...

Have/has+S+been+V3+...

S+will have been+V3+...

S+will not have been+V3+...

Will+S+have been+V3+...

PASSİVE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PAST

PRESENT

FUTURE

 

PERFECT CONTİNUOUS (PROGRESSIVE)

Past Perfect Continuous

I had been doing (Yapmaktaydım)

- Refer back to an earlier past when talking about the past

- Talk about something had been in progress up to the past time

- How long something had been continuing

I, we, you, they, he, she, it- had been

Affirmative:

S+had been+Ving+...

Negative:

S+had not been+Ving+...

Question:

Had+S+been+Ving+...

Wh-q+had+S+been+Ving+...

Words and expressions:

about, for, since, before, until, nearly...

Present Perfect Continuous

I have been doing

(Yapmaya devam ediyorum)

- Always connect the present and the past

- Started in the past and has been in progress up to the recent past or now

- An action has been in progress up to the recent past, especially when the action has results in the present

- Repeated actions or situations in a period up to the present (or the recent past)

- How long something has continued

I, we, you, they- have

He, she, it- has

Affirmative:

S+have/has been+Ving+...

Negative:

S+have/has+not been+Ving+...

Question:

Have/has+S+been+Ving+...

Wh-q+have/has+S+been+Ving+...

Words and expressions:

for, since, lately

 

Future Perfect Continuous

I will have been doing

(Yapıyor olacağım)

- Like Future Perfect Simple

- Will be in progress for a limited period in the future

I, we, you, they, he, she, it- will have been

(I, we- shall)

Affirmative:

S+will have been+Ving+...

Negative:

S+will not have been+Ving+...

Question:

Will+S+have been+Ving+...

Wh-q+will+S+have been+Ving+...

Words and expressions:

by the (time), when, until, in 8 hours/a week…

ACTİVE

S+had been being+V3+...

S+had not been being+V3+...

Had+S+been being+V3+...

 

 

S+have/has been being+V3+...

S+have/has not been being+V3+...

have/has+S+been being+V3+...

S+will have been being+V3+...

S+will not have been being+V3+...

Will+S+have been being+V3+...

PASSİVE

  

 


  • Personal pronouns

 

Subject pronouns

Object pronouns

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

1st person

I

We

Me

Us

2nd person

You

You

You

You

3rd person

He

They

Him

Them

She

Her

It

It

We use personal pronouns to replace nouns when it’s clear who or what are talking about

Use as the subject pronouns as the subjects of verbs (He is in the kitchen)

Use as the object pronouns as the objects of verbs and prepositions

(I like him –verb) (I’ve written to her –preposition)


  • Possessive adjectives and pronouns

 

Adjectives

Pronouns

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

1st person

My

Our

Mine

Ours

2nd person

Your

Your

Yours

Yours

3rd person

His

Their

His

Theirs

Her

Hers

Its

-

Before a noun to say whom the noun belongs to (I can’t find my keys)

We use possessive pronouns without a noun, when the noun is understood

“My own/your own/his own...” to emphasize that some thing belongs to only one person it’s not shared

“On my own/on your own/on his own...” (=by myself/by yourself...) mean “alone” or “without help”


  • Reflexive pronouns

 

Subject pronouns

Singular

Plural

1st person

Myself

Ourselves

2nd person

Yourself

Yourselves

3rd person

Himself

Themselves

Herself

Itself

The subject and the object of a clause are the same

- enjoy yourself: have a good time

- help yourself: take for yourself

- by myself/by yourself... mean “alone” or “without help”

We don’t normally use reflexive pronouns to talk about actions which people usually do to themselves


  • Relative pronouns

 

People

People or things

Things

As subjects

Who

That

Which

As objects

Whom

That

Which

Commas are required to separate the clause from the rest of the sentence if the clause is not essential

The pronoun “that” never follows a comma because “that” is only for essential relative clauses


  • Wh questions (Wh-q)

What/where/who/whose/when/why/which/how

- We form questions by changing the position of the subject (eg she, they, we) and the auxiliary verb (eg be, have, can). (She is reading. What is she reading?)

- We form questions with the “full verb be” in the same way. (He is here. Why is he here?)

- We form questions with “have got” by changing the position of the subject and have. (He has got your key. Why has he got your key?)

- If there are two or more auxiliary verbs, we change the position of the subject and the first auxiliary. (He has been reading. What has he been reading?)

In the present simple and past simple there is no auxiliary verb, so we use “do/does” in present simple questions and “did” in past simple questions. (They start work. When do they start work?)

Note that after “do/does/did” the verb is always the infinitive without “to” (eg start, go, arrive) except for infinitives of purpose (main verb omitted) (did he go to the store?)


 

  • Subject and object questions

- “Who” can ask about the subject or the object. Compare:

When “who” asks about the subject, the verb has the same form as a statement (eg loves, phoned, is helping), and we do not use “do, does” in the present simple or “did” in the past simple.

- We can also use “what, which, how many” to ask about the subject.

(What made that noise? → It was the cat.) (How many people went to the party? → About fifty.)


  • Questions words

- We use “what” with a noun (eg what color, what nationality) or without a noun to ask mostly about things. (What color is your car? What is Ken doing?)

- We can sometimes use “what” to ask about people. (What actors do you like?)

- We use “who” without a noun to ask about people. (Who is your favorite actor? Who told you the news?)

- We use “which” with or without a noun to ask about things or people when there is a restricted choice. (Which color do you like best?)

But we often use “who” even when there is a restricted choice. (Who do you prefer?)

- We often use “which one” instead of “who or what” when there is a restricted choice. (Which one do you prefer - Robert de Niro or Dustin Hoffman?) or we can use “which two/three...”

We can also use “which of…” (Which of these colors do you like best?)

- We use “whose” with or without a noun to ask about possession. (Whose book is this? It's Maria's.)

- We use “where” to ask about place. (Where are you going on holiday?)

- We use “when” to ask about time. (When were you born?)

- We use “why” to ask about reason or purpose. (Why are you late?)

- We use “how” to ask “in what way?” (How did you get here?)

- We use “how” in greetings and introductions, and to ask about state of health. (How do you do?)

- We use “how” with adjectives (e.g. old, tall) and adverbs (e.g. often, well), and with “much and many”. (How old are you? / How often do you go to the cinema? / How much money have you got with you?)


  • Negative questions

- We normally form negative questions with the contraction “n't”. We put “n't” after an auxiliary verb (eg be, have, can). (Aren't you watching TV?)

- We also form negative questions by putting “n 't” after the full verb “be” (Aren't you Simon Robinson? / Haven't they got any money?)

- If there are two or more auxiliary verbs, “n't” goes after the first auxiliary. (Haven't you been listening?)

- In the present simple and past simple there is no auxiliary verb, so we use “do/does” (in the present simple) and “did” (in the past simple) before “n't”. (Don't you smoke? / Didn't they go to the cinema?)

- The word order is different when we use the full form “not” instead of “n't” (Are you not watching?)

The forms with “not” are more formal and not so common. (but used when the “not” is being emphasized)

- We often use “negative questions” to express surprise, disappointment or annoyance. (Don't you smoke?)

Negative questions are common in exclamations. (Isn't it a terrible day!)

We also use negative questions when we think we know something and we are asking for confirmation. (Aren't you Simon Robinson?)

- Notice the meanings of “yes, no” in answers to negative questions. ('Didn't they see the film?' 'Yes.' (= Yes, they saw the film.)/'No.' (= No, they didn't see the film.)


  • Tag question

Normally (+),(-) or (-),(+) (You know the tag Q, don’t you?)

Surprise or don’t believe (-),(-) or (+),(+) (You’ll stop joking, will you)


 

  • Modal verbs

 

Possibility and probability

Present/future form

Past form

 

 

Could+V1

Couldn’t/could not

Could have+V3

Specific possibilities

Means ”know how”

He could be in the canteen.

 

Could have+V3

It was possible for something to happen, but it didn’t

We could have taken a taxi, but we decided to walk home instead.

Might+V1

Might not

Might have+V3

Specific possibilities

It might snow this year.

May+V1

May not

May have+V3

Specific possibilities

It may snow this year.

Can+V1

Can’t/can not

-

General or theoretical possibilities

Means “be able to”

The temperature here can reach 35°.

Should+V1

Shouldn’t/should not

-

Stronger possibility

The car keys should be there.

 

Ability and willingness

Present/future form

Past form

 

 

Can+V1

Can’t/can not

Could+V1

General ability

With perception

Means “be able to”

When I was younger, I could touch my nose with my feet.

I can smell something burning.

Be able to+V1

Be unable to

Was able to+V1

Managed to+V1

Ability for a specific event

Same as “can” when talking about an ability in the present

 “be unable to” express an incapacity to do something

Although he was badly injured, he was able to crawl his way to safety.

Will+V1

Won’t/will not

Wouldn’t

Willing to do something

(negative form expresses refusal to do)

I’ll do the washing up, you sit down and have a rest.

 

Permission and request

Present/future form

Past form

 

 

Can/could+V1

Can’t/can not

Couldn’t/could not

-

Permission and request

Means “be able to”

Could you give me a hand?

May/might+V1

May not

Might not

-

Permission

May I borrow your newspaper?

Will/would+V1

Won’t/will not

Wouldn’t/would not

-

Request

Will you just wait here for a minute?

 

“Might, could, would” are more polite than “may, can, will”

 

Obligation and necessity

Present/future form

Past form

 

 

Must+V1

Mustn’t/must not

Must have+V3

Had to+V3

Obligation in writing

Advice or recommendation

Applicants must be over eighteen to vote.

You must go to see it.

Must be+Ving

Can’t

Must have+V3

Logical necessity

(negative form is “can’t”)

They must be having a party.

That can’t be your mother, she looks too young.

Will be+Ving

Won’t be/will not be

Will have+V3

Logical necessity

Is that the doorbell? It will be the pizza delivery.

Have (got) to+V1

Don’t have (got) to

Had to+V3

Talk about obligation

You have (got) to be eighteen to vote.

Should+V1

Shouldn’t/should not

Should have+V3

Talk about the right thing to do (There will be a bad result if it is not followed)

You should do carefully.

We usually use “Do you think I/we should…?”

rather than “Should I/we…?”

Ought to+V1

Ought not to

Ought to have+V3

Talk about the right thing to do (same as “should”)

You ought to be in the bed.

 

 

 

Semi Modals

 

 

Used to+V1

didn’t use to+V1 never use to+V1

Refers to a habitual action in the past that does not take place now

To describe a state rather than an action

I used to smoke (now I don’t smoke)

Would rather+V1

 

 

Talk about preferences

Same as “would prefer+to+V1”

“would prefer” can be followed by nouns,

but “would rather” can’t

S+would rather+V1

S1+would rather+S2+V2

S+would prefer+object+to+V1

 

Had better

 

For giving strong advice which would have serious consequences if not followed

had better+V1 (without to)

 

Need (to)

Needn’t/don’t need to

 

To convey necessity

Sometimes “want” is used in place of “need”

 

Need(s)+Ving/need(s) to+V1

My jacket needs cleaning (passive)

my jacket needs to be cleaned

You needn’t bother

(=It’s not necessary to do something.)

Need I say more? (=Isn’t it obvious?)

Dare

Daren’t/don’t dare

 

Used in the negative and question forms to mean have the courage to do something

 

I daren’t tell him the truth in case he fires me.

I dare say (=expect)

How dare you…

(=I am very shocked/angry by…)

Don’t you dare make fun of the way I speak!

(a strong warning not to do something)

To be capable of

 

“capable” means the same as “able”

Talk about a person possessing the personal qualities needed to do something

S+to be+capable of+Ving

able to do something

capable of doing something

Shall

Be going to

Advice/opinion/suggestion

Alternative form of “will”

 

Be supposed to

 

Present form is “am/is/are supposed to”

To indicate an unfulfilled obligation

Similar to “should”

Past form is “was/were supposed to”

To indicate an unfulfilled obligation in the past

Same meaning as “should have+V3”

 

Be to+V1

 

To convey command

 

You are to finish your dinner.

To be bound to

 

Equivalent to “to be certain to”

To express a strong sense of certainty

You’re bound to/certain to succeed as long as you produce what people want

Be permitted to

 

 

 

Be allowed to

 

 

 

 

 

Present/Future

Present continuous

Past

Past continuous

Modals+V1

Modals+be+Ving

Modals+have+V3

Modals+have been+Ving

 

 

Must

90% sure

 

 

 

Should

60% probability

 

 

 

Could

50% probability

               

Active

Passive

May

45% probability

 

S+modals+V1

S+modals+be+V3

Might

40% probability

 

 

 

Can’t

99% impossible

 

 

 

 

Can

May

Could

Might

V1

V2

Present

Real

Informal

Near

Past

Unreal

Formal

Far

Immediate

Possibility

Remote

 

Must

Should

Can

Will

Have to/Need to

Ought to/be supposed to

Be able to

Going to

No infinitive

Always present

Meaning not clean

Subjective

To infinitive

Any tense

Meaning is clear and certain

Objective


  • Mind

For making a polite/formal request

Would+S+mind+gerund+complement (Would you mind closing the window?)

Would+S+mind+if+S+V2+complement (Would you mind if I closed the window?)

In an informal situation (Do you mind not smoking?)


  • Mind/tired of+Ving

“don’t mind” means “it’s not a problem” (I don’t mind getting up early)

“tired of” means “don’t like” (I’m tired of getting up early)

Also we can use: (don’t) like, (don’t) understand, (don’t) appreciate, be (un)happy about, (dis)agree with, (dis)approve of


  • Look forward to+Ving+noun

To express pleasure we feel now when thinking about a future event that is “certain” to happen

S+be+look(ing) forward to+Ving+…

S+be+look(ing) forward to+noun+…

As a formula for ending formal letters

(I look forward to/am looking forward to hearing from you...)


  • Wait for...to

Wait for+object+infinitive with to

(I’m waiting for you to tell me what’s wrong)


  • When talking unreal/distant/remote far things

Have/has → had

Am/are → were

Is → was

V1 → V2


  • Preferences

Would rather/sooner+V1

Would rather+be+Ving (present)

Would rather/sooner+have+V3 (prefer in the past but couldn’t have done)

Would rather+S+V2 (present)

Would rather+S+had+V3 (past)

Prefer+noun+to+noun

Prefer+Ving+to+Ving

Prefer+to+V1+...+rather than+V1+...

Would rather+V1+...+than+V1+...

Like+noun+better than+noun


  • Passive

We use the passive when we don’t know/don’t interest in/don’t want to say who or what does something

More polite way to say something

We sometimes use “get (+V3)” instead of “be (+V3)” to make passive when we talk about things that happen by accident or unexpectedly (was/were → got, am/is/are → get)

The tense normally doesn’t change

In the passive “to be” must be in the same tense as the verb in the active phrase

Active sentence

Passive sentence

You can see it there

It can be seen there

She is buying a car

A car is being bought

He speaks English

English is spoken

He received a letter

A letter was received

We were following a thief

A thief was being follwed

Mary had seen us there

We had been seen there

I shall be learning French

French will be being learnt

Passive sentences+by+who/what does something

Passive sentences+with+instrument/material


  • Allow

Often used in passive form

It provides a common way of expressing rules and regulations

Similar to the verb “permit” (smoking is not allowed) (You’re allowed to bring that)


 

  • Possessive `s

Show the relationship of the person to something/someone (Sally’s)

The names of animals (a dog’s life)

A group of people or a place where peoples work, live, ... (club’s rules)

Some expressions of time (yesterday’s newspaper)

After a singular noun → sally’s

After a plural noun ending in -s → parents’

After a plural noun not ending in -s → men’s


  • Reported speech

The tense normally moves back

S+said (that) → tense goes back

S+says (that) → tense doesn’t change

Say+something

Tell/say+someone+something

We can use “add/answer/object/promise/scream/whisper/complain/announce/protest” like “say”

We can use “assure/remind” like “tell”

- Verbs in the present change into the past

I’m → She was

V1 → V2

I don’t → I didn’t

She has finished → she had finished

- Verbs in the past change in to the past perfect or don’t change

I spoke → I had spoken/I spoke

- Verbs already in the past perfect don’t change

- Modal verbs

Speaker’s word

Reported speech

can

could

will

would

shall

should

may

might

could

don’t change

would

don’t change

should

don’t change

might

don’t change

Must/have to

had to

If we report something that is still true now, we sometimes use the same tense as the speaker

- Pronouns

I → he/she/it

- Adjectives

my → her/him

Speaker’s word

Reported speech

Here

There

This

That/the

Now

Then

Today

That day

Tonight

That night

Tomorrow

The next/following day

Yesterday

The day before/the previous day

Next Monday

The following Monday

Last Monday

The previous Monday

 

- Reported questions

What are you doing? → He wanted to know/asked what they were doing

Don’t use question mark (?)

If there is no question word (what/who/when/...) we can use “if” or “whether” to introduce a reported question

Are you cold? → I asked if he was cold


 

  • Quantity

 

- Some

Before plural/uncountable nouns

Mostly in affirmative sentences

We can use “some” after “if”

Make a contrast (some people)

- Any

Before plural/uncountable nouns

Mostly in negative sentences

After words with a negative meaning “without, never, seldom, rarely, hardly”

After words with a negative meaning “whichever, whatever”

We can use “any” after “if”

In open questions (don’t expect a particular answer) “it doesn’t matter which” or “whichever you like”

Use “any more/any longer” in negative sentences, “no longer” in positive sentences to mean “after then”

- Much

Uncountable nouns

Mostly in question and negative sentences

Often affirmative sentences after too/as/so/very

- Many

Plural countable nouns

Mostly in question and negative sentences

Often affirmative sentences after “too/as/so/very”

- Most

Means “much/many”

“the most” means “maximum”

- A lot of/lots of

Uncountable/plural countable nouns

Affirmative sentences

- (a) little

Uncountable nouns

Not much but enough

“little” means “not much, almost no”

- (a) few

Plural countable nouns

Not many but enough

 “few” means “not many, almost no”

“a few” means “several/some”

- Several

Plural countable nouns

“several” means “a few/some”

- A number of

Plural countable nouns

“a few” or “a group of people/things”

Use “a small number of”, “a large number of” for emphasis

“the number of” means “how much something”

- A small amount of

Uncountable nouns

Same meaning with “a little”

Also we can use “a great amount of, a huge amount of, a huge deal of, a good deal of”

- Plenty of

Uncountable/plural countable nouns

Same meaning with “a lot of, quite much/many”

- Enough

Uncountable/plural countable nouns

Sufficient, adequate

- No

Before a noun

“not a” or “not any”

- None

None is a pronoun

We use it alone, without a noun

Before “my/this/the.../us/them...” we use “none of”

 

- All

With plural words

Uncountable or countable nouns

Normally use alone to mean “everybody/everyone”

Don’t often mean “everything”

Expression: “all about”

- Every

All without an exception

Singular words

Countable nouns

When we think of a whole group

- Whole

“complete” or “every part of”

Normally use with singular countable nouns

Always use “the/my/this” before “whole”

“a whole” before (singular) nouns

Don’t normally use with uncountable nouns

- Each

When we think of the members of a group

Separately, one at time

- Both

Two of a couple

Before plural countable noun

Has a positive sense and takes a plural verb

Both of: before “the/your/these...” but we often leave out “of”

Both...and...

- Either (Either...or...)

One of a couple

Before singular countable noun

Either of: before “the/your/these...” or before plural object pronouns (you/us/them...)

- Neither (Neither...nor...)

None of a couple

Before singular countable noun

Has a negative sense and takes a singular verb

Neither of: before “the/your/these...” or before plural object pronouns (you/us/them...)

After “neither of” we can use a singular or plural verb

 


  • Causative

- to have/get something done

S(+to be/modals)+have/has/get+...+object+V3+...

To emphasize the fact of who has ordered or requested the action (He had his kitchen remodeled)

Talk about which we arranges for someone else to do something for us (I’m having a garage built at the moment)

 

- to have/to make somebody do something

S+to be+have/make+S+V1+object+...

Have to persuade/convince somebody to do something

Make to force somebody to do something (The teacher has made the students write the same letter again)

 

- to get somebody to do something (with “to”)

S+to be+get+S+to+V1+object+...

(Tom is going to get somebody to paint the walls)

 

- to have somebody do something (without “to”)

S+to be+get+S+V1+object+... (He had an electrician repair the owen)


  • One(s)

Instead of repeating a noun

Use “a/an” with “one” if there is an adjective (I want a blue one)

After the demonstrative adjectives (this one)

In questions (which one...)

After each (each one goes different way)


  • Time

at+a time of the day (at noon)

On weekends

In US

At the weekend

Outside of the US

at+weekends/public holiday periods (at Christmas time)

in+a part of the day (in the morning) (but we say at night)

in+longer periods (months/seasons/years/...) (in the 19th century)

on+a day (on Sunday)

on+a day+a part of day (on Sunday morning)

on+a date (on 4th July)

 

We don’t use at/in/on before next/last/this/every/all/each/some/any/one/tomorrow/yesterday

We normally leave out “at” when asking “what time”

We use “in” to talk about a period of time in the future

We also use “in” to say how long something takes (in twenty minutes)

“on time” means “at exactly the right time” (in my school, the classes always start on time)

“in time” means “early enough” (He discovered the fire in time to stop it spreading)

“at the end” means “at the point where something stops” (at the end of the film I felt very sad)

“in the end” means “finally” or “after some time” (we couldn’t decide what to do yesterday evening in the end we decide to stay at home)

 

- In

To refer to a period of time (in the summer)

 

- During

To refer to a period of time (during the summer)

To say that something continues all through a period

To refer to an activity eg a visit or a meal

During says when something happens → during+noun

 

- For

With a period of time to say how long something continues (for ten days)

With the present perfect to talk about things that have continued over a period (for two hours)

 

- Since

With the present perfect to talk about things that have continued from a point in time until the present (Since 1970)

 

- While

The same meaning as “during” → while+clause

Similar to “a short time”

Use “a short while” to emphasize the shortness of the time

 

- By

To mean “not later than”

 

- Until (till)

To mean “up to the time when”

“till then” means “after now”

“till now” means up to now”

 

- Ago

Is an adverb meaning “before now” (two hours ago) (how long ago...)

Always use with a past tense

- Before

Means “before a past time”

 

- Still

“as late as now or then”, “later than expected”

Before a full verb

After be or auxiliary verb

After the subject in negative sentences; express impatience or surprise (they still haven’t paid it)

 

- Yet

“up to now or then”

Only in questions or negative sentences

In negative short answers after not (not yet)

 

- Already

“by now or then”, “sooner than expected”

Before a full verb

After be or auxiliary verb

 

- When/as/while/whenever/every time/the moment/the minute/the day/anytime

Happen at the same time

 

- When/as soon as/before/after/once/by the time

Happen one after the other

 

- Scarcely(hardly)...when/no sooner...than/just as/directly/immediately

Happen one just after the other

 

- Long after/long before

Happen one long after the other

 

- Until (till)

Describe a situation in progress

Up to the time when

In future we can use “by”


  

  • Place

 

Dimension

Position

Direction

0 D (not touch)

Use “be”

Always use “to”

at (no connection, only near)

away from (far)

to/towards

away from

1 D (line)

on/off

on(onto)/off

2 D (surface)

on/off

on(onto)/off

2 D (border)

in/out (of)

in/into

out (of)

3 D (space, volume)

in/out (of)

in/into

out (of)

 

 

0 D                                            at (very short time)

 

 

1D/2 D                                     on (day, dates, short time)

 

 

2D/3 D                                     in (months, long time)

 

- In

A place as three dimensional

A place as an area

The place itself (He’s got a flat in Milan)

With buildings, we can often use “at” or “in”

In British English, we use “in” when we just give the name of the street

We use “in” with cars, but “on” with public transport

 

- At

A place as a point or abstract location

With buildings, we can often use “at” or “in” depending on emphasis

We normally prefer “at” when we think of the building quite generally as a place where something happens (at university)

With address, we use “at” when we give the house number (at 42)

 

- On

A place as a surface

A place as a line

We use “in” with cars, but “on” with public transport


  • Place and movement

 

   

- Over

Higher than

Covering (put his hand over his face)

Across (walked over)

- Above

Higher than

The higher

Above

 

Over

- Under

Lower than, covered by

We can use “underneath” instead of “under”

- Below

Lower than, the lower

 

 

Under

 

Below

- On top of

One thing is “over and touching” an other thing

 

- In front of

Front side

 

- Behind

Back side

- Opposite

- Between

- Near

- Next to/beside

- Along

- Across

On the other side of, to the other side of

- Over

Same mean across, but we prefer over for movement to the other side of something high

- Through

- Up

- Down

- Past

- (a)round

also “into all parts of” or “all over (a place)”

- From/to

From               To

 

 

 

 

- Fall down

Falling to the ground

Falling along an inclined surface such as stairs or a hill

 

- Fall off

Falling from a high object such as table to the ground

 

- Fall over

A tall object (or person) falling to the ground


  • Get to = arrive at/in

Arrive in → a country/town

Arrive at → other places


  • Transport

- By

by+noun to say how we travel

When we use “my/a/the...” before “car/bus/train...”, we usually don’t use “by”

 

- On

“on foot” meaning “walking”

We use “on” with bicycles/motorbikes and public transport (on a motorbike)

 

- In

We use “in” with cars (in my car)


  • Too

“Too” goes before adjectives and adverbs (I won’t go out tonight I’m too tired)

We use “too many” before countable nouns

We use “too much” before uncountable nouns

We can use “too much/many” without a noun

After “too” we can use “for+object”

After “too” we can use the “to+infinite” (It’s too early to have dinner)

We can use the structure “too+for+object+to+infinitive” (It’s too early for us to have dinner)

We can modify “too” with “much/a lot/far(=very much)/a little/a bit/rather” (a bit too fast)

“Too” has the negative meaning “more than necessary” or “more than is good” (too late)


  • Enough

“Enough” goes after adjectives and adverbs (we aren’t working quickly enough; we had better hurry)

We use “enough” before countable/uncountable nouns

We can use “enough” without a noun

After “enough” we can use “for+object”

After “enough” we can use the “to+infinite” (He isn’t old enough to drive a car)

We can use the structure “enough+for+object+to+infinitive” (It isn’t large enough for me to wear)


  • So

Before an adjective alone, without a noun (don’t be so foolish)

Also use with an adverb (he works so slowly)

We can use “so” with “many/much” (so many people)

After “so” we can use “that clause” to express result


  • Such

Before a noun, with or without an adjective (She’s such a nice woman) (don’t be such a fool)

We can use “such” before “a lot (of)” (such a lot of people)

After “such” we can use “that clause” to express result/condition/situation

Use “such as” to give examples


  • Reason

- Because/because of/on account of/thanks to/due to/owing to

because...+noun/pronoun/gerund+main clause

Use before a clause, with a subject and verb

We can use “since/as/seeing that/seeing as/for/when/now that/in that/in as much as/as long as/so long as” to mean “because” before a cause (often come at the beginning of sentences)

since/as/...+cause+main clause


  • Result

- So/as a result/therefore

To introduce the result of something

Before a clause

“Therefore” can also go before the verb (I therefore took it again)

We also use “as a result/therefore” at the beginning of sentences

“Therefore” is rather formal than the others

 

- So/such/in order/for fear...(that)...

When we talk about the result of something

Use “so/in case” before an adjective or adverb

Use “such/in case” before a noun

Use “lest” to give negative meaning


  • Comparison

- like

To describe something

To say that things are similar (like a pig)

To give examples (she enjoys motor sports, like sailing and windsurfing)

As a verb similar to “enjoy”

As a preposition to ask for a general description of someone or something (What is Tom like?)

As a phrasal verb in “look like” when asking for a physical description of someone or something

(What does Tom look like?)

As a phrasal verb in “feel like” when talking about what we want to do at a particular moment

(Do you feel like going out?)

 

- be likely to

S+am/is/are+(un)likely+to+V1

Talk about the probability of something will be happening in the future (It’s likely to snow=It’ll probably snow)

“be hardly likely to” means “definitely will not”

“be highly likely to” means “almost certain to”

 

- as if

Before a subject+verb to say how someone or something seems (you look as if you’re cold)

Use “as if+past tense” to talk about the present when the idea is unreal (my brother sometimes behaves as if he was my father)

In a non formal style we often use “were” instead of “was” to express unreal ideas

We can use “as though” instead of “as if”

In an informal style “like” is sometimes used instead of “as if/though”

 

- as

To describe something or to mean “because” or “since”

“as” is a conjunction, before a clause, with a subject and a verb (nobody else can sing as she can)

 

- as…as

To compare two things that are alike, or to say that two things are equal in value


  • as far as ... concerned

The equivalent of saying “about, regarding, concerning, considering”

Start to tell a new sentence meaning “if I have to say something about that topic”


  • Comparative, superlative

more+adj+than

the most+adj

 

fairly → quite → rather/pretty → very

                → stronger →

 

a/an → quite a/an, a fairly, a pretty, rather a/an or a rather

“Rather, quite, pretty” can be used before comparatives (rather colder, rather more expensive)

“Quite” can also mean “completely” (the animal was quite dead)


 - With (=having)

To say someone or something has (he is a tall man with brown hair)

 

- In (=wearing)

To say what someone is wearing (he often goes to work in his jeans)


  • Have (got)

Means “to own something”

In American English “S+have/has+noun”

In British English “S+have/has+got+noun”


  • If clauses

- The first conditional (open present or future conditionals)

if+present tense+future tense (if+present tense+will/going to+V1)

There is a possibility that the situation in the if clause “will happen in the future” or “is true in the present” (if he asks me, I’ll help him)

- The second conditional (unreal present or future conditional)

if+simple past tense+would/could+V1 (use “could” to “possibility”, “would” to “certainly”)

To talk of things “probably won’t happen” or “possibilities that are very remote/far”

Talk about unreal present or future situations (if he asked me, I would help him)

- The third conditional (unreal past conditional)

if+past perfect tense+would/could have+V3

Talk about unreal past situations (if he had asked me, I would have helped him)

- General conditionals

if+present simple tense+present simple tense

Talk about habits and general truths (if he asks me, I always help him)


  • If I were you

Often used giving advice to someone

The first part of a second conditional sentence

In colloquial English we often use “If I were in your shoes” when the person receiving the advice is in a difficult or uncomfortable situation


 

  • Cleft sentences

- what … is/was …

 

 

I want

 

a new book

What

I want

is

a new book

 

My car

 

makes all this noise

 

 

 

What

makes all this noise

is

my car

 

- it is/was … that …

 

 

I

 

want a new book

It is

me

that

want a new book

 

I want

 

a new book

 

 

 

It is

a new book

that

I want

 

My brother

threw

a tomato

at

the fat singer

 

in our club

 

yesterday.

a

 

b

 

c

 

d

 

e

 

 

a. It was my brother THAT threw a tomato at the fat singer in our club yesterday.

b. It was a tomato THAT my brother threw at the fat singer in our club yesterday.

c. It was the fat singer THAT my brother threw a tomato at in our club yesterday.

d. It was in our club THAT my brother threw a tomato at the fat singer yesterday.

e. It was yesterday THAT my brother threw a tomato at the fat singer in our club.

 


 

  • Contrast

- Even although/although/though

To introduce a contrast

After them we use a clause, with a subject and a verb

“Even though” is more emphatic than “although” and “although” is more emphatic then “though”

Though is more informal style of although

We also use “though” to mean “however” at the and of the sentence

 

- In spite of/despite

To talk about a contrast

After them we use a noun or an –ing form

We also say in spite of/despite the fact (that)... (in spite of the fact that take weather was bad we went out for a walk)

 

- While

To introduce a contrast between two ideas

 

- Whereas

To introduce a contrast between two ideas

A conjunction which is used to contrast two things

Permits the other of the two clauses to be reserved

Similar to one of the uses of “while” but it is used to place more emphasis on the difference

 

- However

Express a contrast

 

- Whatever

Any thing

 

-Wherever

Any place

 

- Whoever

Any person

 

- Whenever

Any time

 

- Everything

All things

 

- Everywhere

All places

 

- Everyone

All people

 

- Every time

All times


  • Past and Past Participle forms of regular verbs

- Consonant+y → change the “y” to “i” before adding “ed” (carry → carried)

- Consonant+vowel+y → only add “ed” (annoy → annoyed)

- Ends with “e” → only add “d” (advise → advised)

- One-syllable verb ends with consonant+vowel+consonant → double the final consonant before adding “ed”

(plan → planned)

- More than one syllable verb, the last syllable is pronounced more strongly then the others, ends with consonant+vowel+consonant → double the final consonant before adding “ed” (prefer → preferred)

- More than one syllable verb, the last syllable is pronounced as same strong as the others, ends with consonant+vowel+consonant → only add “ed” (visit → visited)

- Ends with “l” and the last syllable is not pronounced more strongly then the others, the final “l” is often doubled in British English but not in American English (cancel → canceled or in Br. Cancelled)


S+will+…+when/if/until+present simple

S+V2+...+when+S+was/were+Ving+...

Past cont. (situation)+when+past simple (event)

Past simple (event)+while+past cont. (situation)

 

Why don’t you → to convey suggestion

 

It’s about time+S+V2 → talk about something which should have already happened but hasn’t happened yet

(It’s about time the train came)

 


  • References

- The Heinemann English Grammar

- Grammar in Action books, Wall Street Institute

- Cutting Edge Advance, Longman

- My own study and course notes

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